10 Differences Between fdi and fpi

FDI vs FPI – Understanding the Differences

FDI vs FPI – Understanding the Differences

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) are two important terms in the realm of international finance and investment. While both involve investing in foreign markets, there are significant differences between the two. In this article, we will explore what FDI and FPI are, examples of each, their uses, and finally, a comprehensive table highlighting key differences.

What is FDI?

FDI refers to the investment made by a company or individual from one country into business interests located in another country. In FDI, the investor gains significant control over the foreign entity and typically involves establishing a lasting interest in an enterprise abroad.

Examples of FDI

1. A company based in the United States establishing a manufacturing plant in China.

2. A British corporation acquiring a majority stake in an Indian technology company.

Uses of FDI

1. Expanding into new markets and accessing new customer bases.

2. Accessing resources and technologies available in the foreign country.

3. Reducing costs through cheaper labor or favorable tax regimes.

What is FPI?

FPI, on the other hand, refers to the investment in financial assets such as stocks, bonds, or other securities of a foreign country, without any direct control over the invested entity.

Examples of FPI

1. An individual in Japan purchasing stocks of a Chinese company listed on the stock exchange.

2. A mutual fund based in the United Kingdom investing in government bonds issued by Germany.

Uses of FPI

1. Diversifying investment portfolios across multiple countries.

2. Taking advantage of potential capital gains and income generated from financial assets.

Differences Table

Difference Area FDI FPI
Control Significant control over the foreign entity No control or significant influence over the invested entity
Nature of Investment Long-term investment Short-term investment
Objective Economic gain through operations in the foreign market Capital appreciation or income through financial assets
Transferability Not easily transferable High liquidity and easily transferable
Risk Exposure to political, economic, and operational risks Market and currency risks
Investor Type Companies and individuals seeking long-term business interests Individuals, mutual funds, and other financial institutions
Investment Size Larger investments involving significant capital Smaller investments, often made in the form of a portfolio
Impact on Local Economy Creates jobs, transfers technology, and stimulates economic growth Can lead to volatility in financial markets
Taxation Subject to tax regulations in both home and host countries May be subject to withholding tax, depending on the country
Exit Options Exit options may be limited due to ownership stakes Easily liquidate financial assets


In summary, FDI involves long-term investments with control over the foreign entity, while FPI refers to short-term investments without any control. FDI focuses on operating businesses in foreign markets, while FPI aims at capital appreciation or income through financial assets. The table above highlights additional differences between FDI and FPI, such as transferability, risk exposure, investor type, impact on the local economy, taxation, investment size, and exit options.

People Also Ask

  • Q: Can FDI and FPI coexist in a single country?
    A: Yes, a country can attract both FDI and FPI simultaneously.
  • Q: Do FDI and FPI have different regulatory frameworks?
    A: Yes, FDI and FPI are usually governed by separate regulations and policies.
  • Q: Which form of investment carries higher risks?
    A: FDI involves higher risks due to the long-term commitment and exposure to various factors.
  • Q: Are FDI and FPI essential for economic development?
    A: Both FDI and FPI play vital roles in economic development by attracting external investments and fostering growth.
  • Q: Can individuals engage in FDI?
    A: Yes, individuals can engage in FDI by starting businesses or acquiring stakes in foreign companies.

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