10 Differences Between sperm and ovum

What is Sperm?

Sperm is the male reproductive cell or gamete. It is produced in the testes and is responsible for fertilizing the female egg. Sperm is composed of a head, mid-piece, and tail, which facilitate its movement towards the egg. It is very small, measuring only about 0.05 millimeters in length.

Examples of Sperm

– Human sperm
– Animal sperm such as that of dogs, cats, and horses

Uses of Sperm

The main purpose of sperm is to fertilize the female ovum, resulting in the creation of a new individual. It plays a vital role in sexual reproduction and the continuation of a species.

What is Ovum?

Ovum, also known as an egg or oocyte, is the female reproductive cell or gamete. It is produced in the ovaries and released during ovulation. Unlike sperm, ovum is one of the largest cells in the human body and measures about 0.1 millimeters in diameter.

Examples of Ovum

– Human ovum
– Animal ovum such as that of birds, reptiles, and fish

Uses of Ovum

The primary use of the ovum is to be fertilized by the sperm. Once fertilized, the ovum develops into an embryo, which eventually becomes a fetus and grows into a baby.

Differences between Sperm and Ovum

Difference Area Sperm Ovum
Size Very small (about 0.05mm in length) Relatively large (about 0.1mm in diameter)
Production Produced in the testes Produced in the ovaries
Mobility Swims actively with the help of a tail Stationary, does not possess any mobility
Number produced Millions are produced at once Only a few hundred are produced during a woman’s lifetime
Function Fertilizes the ovum Gets fertilized by the sperm
Location Released from the penis during ejaculation Released from the ovaries during ovulation
Life span Lives for about 48-72 hours Lives for about 12-24 hours after ovulation
Genetic Material Contains 23 chromosomes Contains 23 chromosomes
Zona Pellucida No Zona Pellucida Has a Zona Pellucida
Size Difference Considerably smaller than the ovum Considerably larger than sperm


In conclusion, sperm and ovum are the male and female reproductive cells, respectively. They differ in terms of size, production, mobility, function, location, and lifespan. Sperm is very small, actively mobile, and fertilizes the ovum, while the ovum is larger, stationary, and gets fertilized by the sperm.

People Also Ask:

Q: How long does a sperm live inside a woman’s body?
A: Sperm can live inside a woman’s body for about 48 to 72 hours after ejaculation.

Q: How many chromosomes are in a human ovum?
A: A human ovum contains 23 chromosomes, half of the total amount found in somatic cells.

Q: Can a sperm fertilize an ovum outside the body?
A: Yes, in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques allow for the fertilization of an ovum using sperm outside the body.

Q: How many eggs are released during ovulation?
A: Generally, only one egg is released during ovulation, but occasionally, multiple eggs can be released, leading to fraternal twins.

Q: Can sperm and ovum be frozen for later use?
A: Yes, both sperm and ovum can be frozen and stored for future use in assisted reproductive technologies, such as artificial insemination or IVF.

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