Each of us shares our air, food, water, and shelter with tiny colonies of microorganisms that include bacteria, and fungi.
Bacteria are bigger and more complex than viruses, though they can still spread through the air. A bacterium is a single cell, and it can live and reproduce almost anywhere on its own: in soil, in water, and our bodies.
Fungi are more complicated organisms than viruses and bacteria—they are “eukaryotes,” which means they have cells. Of the three pathogens, fungi are most similar to animals in their structure.
What are Bacteria?
Bacteria are microscopic organisms that are not visible to the naked eye. Bacteria are everywhere, both inside and outside of our bodies. Bacteria can live in any variety of environments, from hot water to ice. Some bacteria are good for you, while others are not.
Bacteria are single-celled and simple, organisms. Though small, bacteria are powerful and complex, and they can survive in extreme conditions. Bacteria have a tough protective coating that boosts their resistance to white blood cells in the body.
Some bacteria have a tail, called a flagellum. The flagellum helps a bacterium to move around. Other bacteria have sticky hair-like appendages that help bacteria stick to one other, hard surfaces, and human body cells.
There are many bacteria in the human body, especially in the stomach and mouth. Bacteria are found on surfaces and in substances such as water, soil, and food.
Examples of Bacteria
E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi, Lactobacillus spp., etc.
What are fungi?
Fungi are a group of living organisms that are classified in their own kingdom. This means they are not animals, plants, or bacteria. Unlike bacteria, which have simple prokaryotic cells, fungi have complex eukaryotic cells like animals and plants. Fungi are found throughout the Earth including on land, in the water, in the air, and even in plants and animals. They vary widely in size from microscopically small to the largest organisms on Earth at several square miles large. There are more than 100,000 different identified species of fungi.
Examples of Fungi:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Histoplasma, Aspergillus niger, Agaricus boirus, etc.
Major Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi
|Bacteria are single-celled microscopic organisms that are characterized by the presence of an incipient nucleus and few membrane-less cell organelles.||Fungi, singular fungus, are eukaryotes that are characterized by the presence of chitin in the cell wall.|
|All bacteria are prokaryotes.||All fungi are eukaryotes.|
|No. of cells|
|Bacteria are unicellular organisms with simpler cellular structures.||Most fungi are multicellular with complex cellular structures. Some fungi like yeast might be unicellular.|
|The size of bacteria ranges from 0.5 to 5 µm.||The size of the fungi ranges from 2 to 10 µm.|
|The cell wall of bacteria is made up of peptidoglycan under which a cell membrane is present.||The cell wall of fungi is made up of chitin.|
|Bacteria are found to have three distinct shapes viz round (cocci), spiral (Spirilla), and rod-shaped (bacillus).||Fungi are found to have varying shapes, but most of them are spotted in the form of a thread-like structure called hyphae.|
|Bacteria grow best in the neutral environment of pH range 6.5-7.||Fungi mostly prefer a slightly acidic environment with a pH value of -6.|
|Some bacteria are motile with flagella.||Fungi are immobile organisms.|
|The genetic material in bacteria is localized in the nuclear region of the cytoplasm.||The genetic material in fungi is localized in the nuclear region.|
|Bacteria have few membrane-less organelles.||Fungi contain several membrane-bound organelles.|
|Bacteria like all prokaryotes contain 70S ribosomes. 70S ribosomes consist of 50S and 30S subunits.||Fungi, like all eukaryotes, contain 80S ribosomes. The 80S ribosome is composed of two subunits 60S and 40S.|
|Bacteria reproduce by an asexual method like binary fission.||Fungi reproduce through both asexual and sexual methods. Sexual reproduction takes place through fungal spores.|
|Bacteria can be autotrophs or heterotrophs.||Fungi are mostly heterotrophs that feed on dead and decaying matter.|
|Beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of antibiotics and other chemicals.||Beneficial uses of fungi include the production of beer, bread, and antibiotics.|
|E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi, Lactobacillus spp., etc.||Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Histoplasma, Aspergillus niger, Agaricus boirus, etc.|
We can easily conclude that both Bacteria and fungi are present in the environment and are harmful to humans. A bacterium is a single cell, and it can live and reproduce almost anywhere on its own: in soil, in water, and our bodies. andFungi are more complicated organisms than viruses and bacteria—they are “eukaryotes,” which means they have cells. we can see many examples of Bacteria and Fungi
Also, Read Differences between Plants and Animals.