The Himalayan mountains comprises of greatest and highest mountain ranges of the world. The Himalayan mountains are composed of sedimentary rocks and regarded as the youngest folded mountains in the world.
Himalayan mountain ranges consists of three parallel mountain ranges, which are separated by deep valleys and extensive plateaus. They are as follows,
- The Himadri (or) Greater Himalayas
- The Himachal (or) The Lesser Himalayas
- The Shivalik (or) The Outer Himalayas
The detailed description about different ranges of Himalayas is as follows,
THE GREATER HIMALAYAS
- The Northern most range of the Himalayan mountain range is known as The Himadri (or) The Greater Himalayas.
- The average height of these mountain ranges is 6100 meters.
- The Greater Himalayas have many glaciers and is the birth place of several perennial rivers, which provide favorable conditions for agriculture and fosters growth.
THE LESSER HIMALAYAS
- The range of Himalayas which is located to the south of the Greater Himalayas are called as The Lesser Himalayas.
- The average height of this mountain range is around 3700 to 4500 meters.
- The Lesser Himalayan range is famous for valleys. It consists of beautiful valleys of kashmir, The Kangra valley, The Kulu valley, etc.,
THE OUTER HIMALAYAS
- The southern most ranges of the Himalayas are known as Shivaliks or the Outer Himalayas.
- The average altitude of this mountain range varies between 900 and 1100 metres.
- The Outer Himalayan ranges are also called by using different names in different states.
Example : Jammu Hills in Jammu, Mishmi Hills in Arunachal Pradesh, Cachar in Assom, etc.
IMPORTANCE OF HIMALAYAN RANGES
- The Himalayas play very significant role in influencing the climatic conditions of India, they are as follows,
- The Himalayas effectively intercept the monsoons coming from the sea and cause percipitation in the form of rain and snow.
- The Himalayas are responsible for causing rainfall in the plains during the summer.
- The Himalayas are birth place of many rivers and these rivers have been depositing alluvial soil and made Northern plain fertile and suitable for agriculture.
- The Himalayas have beautiful valleys, which are known for cultivation of fruits.