What fuel does a body require to carry out its day to day functions? Food?? Yes, that’s right! We get food from plants and animals they are taken care of by humans. Farmers produce food for the population and the food production of plants in a specific area is called agriculture.
Over these years, cultivation methods have changed significantly depending upon characteristics of the physical environment, technological know-how and socio-cultural practices.
Types of farming:
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in our country. Over 58% of the population in India major source of livelihood is agriculture.
Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type. At present, in different parts of India, the following farming systems are practised.
It is in two forms. They are Simple Subsistence Farming and Intensive Subsistence Farming.
Simple Subsistence Farming:
Agriculture is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/ community labour. This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crop grown. It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture (shifting agriculture).
Intensive Subsistence Farming:
It is practised in areas of high population density on the land. It is labour intense farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
The main characteristics of this type of farming are the use of higher doses of modern inputs, for example, High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop. The plantation is also a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown in a large area. In India tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc; are important plantation crops.
After the result of the preceding discussion, we can say that agriculture is the major source of income and different types of farmings are used for cultivation. Both the farming types are different in their own styles. Commercial farming in one region may provide subsistence in another region. So, these are all the types of farming in India in detail.
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